1. … The different wavelengths available (1064mn and 532mn) can target different pigments of different colors. Construction: It consists of a quartz tube 5 m long and 2.5 cm in the diameter. Fast repetition rates and large coverage areas allow large areas of the body to be treated quickly. Mercury is a premium Long Pulsed Nd : YAG Laser treating multiple indications such as Hair removal, Vascular lesion, Skin rejuvenation and newly added nail/toe fungus lesions. 1. Due to this more number of electrons will be present at the metastable state E3. Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) is a crystal that is used as a laser medium for solid-state lasers. These are also used in welding and cutting of steel and in communication system also. Thereby attaining   population inversion. However, since all tattoos are not the same in terms of colour, depth of ink deposition and their chemical composition, some may respond differently to others. All Rights Reserved. 2. The electron energy level structure of Nd3+ in YAG is complicated. It finds many applications in range finders and illuminators. Strong dual cooling system - Skin Cooling System (SCS) and Contact Cooling System - … 4. It has very high repetition rate operation. * Optical resonator  In certain cases these lasers are also used to treat eye floaters. 8. These lasers operate in both pulsed and continuous mode. PRINCIPLE. * How does Nd:YAG laser work? Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y 3 Al 5 O 12) . algorithm is elaborated by linking the D.P.A and the P.A.A. Principle: The active medium Nd: YAG rod is optically pumped by Krypton flash tubes. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. The ends of the cylindrical rod are highly polished and they are made optically flat and parallel. This discharge tube is filled with gaseous mixture of CO 2 (active medium), helium and nitrogen with suitable partial pressures. Then the Nd ions get raised to higher energy levels and their transition produces a laser beam.    Due to the difference in the energy levels, the electrons need some external pumping in order to perform a transition from one state to another. r, e d(t) S.T.C Pulsed Nd-YAG -t t D(t) laser Tissue response 0(t) : temperature Figure 1: Schematic of the self—tuning control principle. It is a solid state and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels. The fundamental Nd:YAG laser wavelength is in the near IR at 1064nm. It is a solid state and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels. It is much easy to achieve population inversion. Nd ion is rare earth metal and it is doped with solid state host crystal like yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG – Y3Al5O12) to form Nd:YAG laser. * What is Nd:YAG Laser? The triply ionised neodymium [Nd(III)] dopant (ie a substance added in minute amounts to another pure substance to alter its conductivity), typically replaces a small fraction of the yttrium ions in the host crystal structure, since the two ions are of similar size. It is a four level solid state laser. Pastelle, FDA approved, is a premium Q-switched Nd : YAG Laser that provides. Nd:YAG laser is the short form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet. Figure 2.18 shows the energy level diagram for Nd: YAG laser. This video lecture will explain the Construction, working and uses of Nd YAG laser In Nd:YAG Laser , Nd stands for neodymium ions Nd3+ and YAG for Yttrium Aluminium Garnet(Y3Al5O12 ). ©Copyright VY Optoelectronics Co.,Ltd. So, for lasing action to take place an external pump source is required. It corresponds to the transition from E. : Optical pumping is employed for pumping action. Liquid Laser : SeOCL2 Laser,  Europium Chelate Laser, 4. Then the electrons present in the energy state E1 gains energy and moves to energy state E4. * What is applications of Nd:YAG Laser? Black, red dark orange and dark blue tattoos will typically respond better to treatment with laser. Laser technology has greatly improved the ability to treat melanocytic lesions and tattoos with the rapidly pulsed Q-switched neodymium: yttrium – aluminium – garnet (Nd: YAG) Laser. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y3Al5 O12) . They also allow to work on all skin colors safely. Absorptionof radiation is the process by which electrons in the ground state absorbs energy from photons to jump into the higher energy level. Nd:YAG laser are used in military applications to find the desired target. PRINCIPLE. The Q-switched Nd: yag laser tattoo removal machine PL-303, with the optimal 532nm, 1064nm, 1320nm and an extraordinarily short pulse width of only 10ns, is the most precise and safest yag laser tattoo removal treatment and pigmented lesions solutions available.. A high pulse repetition rate and easy spot size (1-6mm adjustable) … Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. One mirror (M, Figure 2.18 shows the energy level diagram for Nd: YAG laser. The Nd:YAG rod and the flash tube are placed inside an elliptical cavity so, that maximum produced light can reach the rod. The electron energy level structure of Nd. It finds many applications in range finders and illuminators. Its main advantage is its thermal stability which allows an Nd:YAG laser to produce a good quality, continuous beam at room temperature. In this way, several electrons on stimulation produce photons thereby generating a coherent laser beam of 1.064 µm. Because of these properties, lasers are used in a wide variety of applications in all walks of life. Thus, electrons present in E2 state will come to E1 without radiating energy in the form of a photon. These energy levels are those of Neodymium (Nd, When the krypton flash lamp is switched on, by the absorption of light, radiation of wavelength 0.73μm and 0.8μm, the Neodymium(Nd, The Neodymium ions atoms make a transition from these energy levels E, The Neodymium ions are collected in the level E, An  ion  makes  a  spontaneous  transition  from  E. The photons thus generated travel back and forth between two mirrors and grow in strength. * External Energy source Principle: The active medium is a gas mixture of CO 2, N2 and He. These energy levels are those of Neodymium (Nd3+) ions. The figure below shows the road like the structure of Yd:YAG laser: * Active medium A small amount of Yttrium ions (Y3+) is replaced by Neodymium (Nd3+) in the active element of Nd: YAG crystal. E2 is a metastable state. Therefore, electrons that were excited to this state by the application external pumping will not stay at this state for much longer duration and comes to lower energy state E3 very fastly but without radiating any photon. Physically, it's an Yttrium aluminium garnet crystal, with Neodymium replacing ~1% of the yttrium atoms in the crystal structure, with surrounding optics and supporting electronic systems. Basically when the external energy source is provided then the electrons from lower energy state moves to higher energy state thereby causing lasing action to take place. The laser transition takes place between the vibrational states of CO 2 molecules. However, initially, electrons in E1 is very much higher as compared to E4. So, when external energy is provided in the active medium of the laser. Gas laser : He-Ne Laser, CO2 Laser, Argon – ion laser, 3. Dye laser : Rhodamine 6G laser, Coumarin dye laser, 5. Therefore, electrons that were excited to this state by the application external pumping will not stay at this state for much longer duration and comes to lower energy state E3 very fastly but without radiating any photon. sun. Nd ion is rare earth metal and it is doped with solid state host crystal like yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG – Y … But once the lifetime of the electrons at the metastable state gets exhausted then these electrons by releasing photons come to lower energy state E2. This emitted photon will trigger a chain of stimulated photons between E2 and E1. However, as E4 is an unstable state and it exhibits short lifespan. So, in this section, we will discuss the working of Nd:YAG laser with the help of the energy level diagram. The optical resonator is formed by using two external reflecting mirrors. This extra energy is provided from various energy sources such as heat, electric fie… Such an account would, in any case, soon be obsolete. : Xenon or Krypton flash tube is used as pumping, : Two ends of Nd: YAG rod is polished with silver. Type: It is a four level solid state laser. 5.    Nd:YAG laser is basically categorized into 3 domains that are the active medium, pumping source and the optical resonator. Copyright © 2018-2021 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. an intense laser light of wavelength 1.06μm is emitted through the partial reflector. The laser treatment of pigmented lesions and tattoos are based on principle selected photothermolysis. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina | The Nd: YAG Laser In Ophthalmology: Principles and Clinical Applications of Photodlsruption by … 3. Semiconductor Laser : GaAs laser, GaAsP laser . It finds many medical applications such as endoscopy, urology, neurosurgery, ENT, gynecology, dermatology, dental surgery and general surgery. Treatment principle of Monaliza-2 Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Therapy Systems is based on laser selective photothermy and blasting mechanism of Q-switched laser. It corresponds to the transition from E2to E1. However, initially, electrons in E1 is very much higher as compared to E4. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. Q-switched Nd: Yag Laser Tattoo Removal Machine PL-303. Also, the doping concentration is around 0.725% by weight. and tested using computer simulation (figure 1). 6. It would also be anticipated that significantly fewer instances of crusting, blistering, pigmentation problems and other adverse epidermal effects would occur with 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The energy state E3 is the metastable state and exhibits longer lifespan. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. So, in this way electrons by gaining single photon of energy releases the energy of 2 photons. It is a four level solid state laser. So, the electrons in this particular state will last for a longer duration. After some time, the photon number multiplies more rapidly. CO 2 lasers emit invisible infrared beams with a wavelength of 10.6 μm. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. ; it contains 4 energy levels. The active medium Nd: YAG rod is optically pumped by Krypton flash tubes. It is a four level solid state laser. The Nd-YAG Laser • Now supersedes the ruby as the most common doped insulator laser • Host material is a crystal of yttrium-aluminium-garnate (Y 3 Al 5 O 12), YAG doped with 0.7% by weight of neodymium (Nd3+) ions • Laser emission takes place at 1.064 µm (infra-red) Solid State Lasers Solid State laser : Ruby Laser Nd:YAG laser, 2. 1. Optical resonator: Two ends of Nd: YAG rod is polished with silver (one end is fully silvered and the other is partially silvered) are used as optical resonator. INTRODUCTION: It is four-level solid state laser system. 1999/July 2003 1.2 Four-level system of the Nd-YAG la-ser. Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers (wavelength 532 nm) are used for pan-retinal photocoagulation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. One mirror (M1) is 100% reflecting while the other mirror (M2) is partially reflecting. Nd: YAG laser . The figure below shows the 4 state energy level diagram of Nd:YAG laser: 1. Thereby forming an optical cavity. Nd:YAG laser is the short form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y3Al5 O12) . Power output: The power output is approximately 70 watt. Electrons present in the figure 2.17 get replaced by the Nd3+ ions 130062! - Dr. W. 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